Chapter 18 Forward Hinged Canopy
March-July of 2010

Arrow down
Forward Hinge Canopy for the Cozy: I cover this topic first and then go to the regular canopy chapter "stuff". I am doing a layup list and that is at the end of the chapter. The water leakage problem is taken care of with a lip on the bottom aft side of F-28 and a "pan" beneath each hinge. The two "pans" are made before the hinges are installed on F-28. (see section 18-9)
03-01-2013 Note:
The esthetics of the added space for my shoulder area added a "wart" to the side of the FHC and so when you do the side support, then you can make a smoother transition by not adding that feature. 

Here is a link for a video on Uri's FHC. I like my FHC, but use all resources, when you tackle this chapter.


I do not know if this video shows mods from the Uri plans.
Here is a link to Dustin Smith's FHC prop for taxi ventalation.

07-01-2011 News

Pic#1&2: These pics show the canopy, but the exterior paint was redone, after this pic.
Pic#3: Here is the canopy in the position for taxi to the RW with some old guy in the cockpit (me).  
Pic#5: There are four adjustable latches on the two sections of the canopy and here is the safety latch to make five anchor points. If I left the other four unsecured and only did this one, then the canopy will still be "safetied", and this one is right in front of my face, well kind of.  
I read Bulent "Buly" Aliev's posting on the cozybuilders forum and he offers to give copies of plans that are 30 pages and each page is 12"X17". I did not have any plans for this FHC build and so what you see below, may not be as good as the plans that he refers to. I suggest that you get those plans directly from Uli (cost $60) and compare them to what I have done.  I like the results that I got, but we need the best FHC design for the Cozy. 

There always seems to be refinements to do. I took the canard cover and added a 1/8th inch lip on the aft edge that slips under the FHC lip. The gap is closed and sealed better. I also added a flox extension on the forward side of the canard cover to more closely match the aft of the nose door. Having the FHC stop at the canard cover and the canard cover stop at the nose door makes for one less seam to hide. I have no worries of rain getting onto the electronics, because I made the custom cover before I installed the FHC onto F-28 (which needs some "dressing up").  Speaking of F-28, the placement of the Tee nuts on top of F-28 and the floxed around machine screws through the canard cover makes for another resistance to torquing when the FHC is in the raised position. The Tee nuts are glassed over with some narrow BID strips. 

(doubleclick images for larger view, and narrative follows each set)

This forward hinged canopy is a "split rotation canopy" system. The forward half of the turtleback rotates to the right side, and the Plexi-section is a FHC off of F-28. The FHC weighs 31.5 pounds with the hinges attached and takes a lift of 19 pounds of force to start the lift and 16 pounds of force to hold the canopy up at the full open position. The gas spring selected for the TB section is too strong, but the downward angle of the final seated position uses the extra force to maintain a closed position.

The key to a dual hinge system is an alignment of the two hinges. This is done with the temporary use of 1/4" metal rods and a "hinge board" (glassed foam of course) connected to a canopy base. Thanks to Jerry Schneider for his pics on the hinges. I saw Chrissi's pic on Uli Wolter's hinges but that all the information that I had of plans for a FHC.
The hinge plan in 18-1 pic section is  accurate to scale. You can print it  off and take 1/4th inch square paper and redraw to make the parts or as a starting point for what you want to do. A printed off copy of the picture off this site will NOT be at the plans scale.
Note: I traced off the hinge shape from this drawing and cut out the two hinges. So, if you want a copy, then send me your address and I will mail it to you (russellcozym4-at-att.net). This is the only to scale drawing that you have to have.
The top of the hinges are 1/2 inch from the outer surface of the fuselage exterior to give the best rotation geometry. See the home page pic #4 for a foam mock up to test the rotation. I completed the FHC main glassing and I got about 55 degrees of rotation before binding occurred (it was the aft of the canard cover hitting the recessed area below the FHC lip). The limit of the extension of the gas springs is about 50 degrees. If I wanted more rotation, then I could move the FHC recess aft a little more.

CHANGES from the side canopy plans that are made in this work.
1. Replace the alignment pins with AN3 bolts to allow for more room on the FWD of F-28 and add reinforcement to F-28.

2. As result of the first change, I must have a removable canard cover. I made my canard cover one piece from just above the access door in the nose to the cut line for the FHC. This type cover makes it possible to insert the AN3 bolt into the alignment bushing and allows full access to the FHC hinges. Full access to the hinges, allows them to be closer to the top skin.

3. Place spacers and set pins on the TB and cut the fwd section off and make the drip rail. Most of what is shown in the pics is only possible with a removable TB forward section.
4. Make a rigid base for the canopy that provides the support for the Plex-canopy and with the base including an extension between the hinges.

5. Add more shoulder room without using a "Texas size plexi-canopy", by making a slight fairing change.

The plans version of the canopy is an exoskeleton type support system. The urethane (blue/tan) foam is made rigid on the exterior, with some hard points added at various locations.  The side hinge setup works with that. The FHC needs a different support setup. A dual hinge articulation works best with a rigid support. I made a "fork" shape rigid base and connected that to a ring support on the aft of the Plexi-canopy in order to get this type support. If your going to have the more rigid base, then the support on the forward side of F-28 really becomes a 'must do". 


The plans show the F-28 at 3.25 inch high. I added to the top of my F-28 to give 1.5 inches above the level of the longerons as per Newsletter #36.

That notice is to make F-28 four inches in height. Since the plans do not show this, I have redrawn my pencil drawings to show this change.  Please overlook the use of "old school" pencil drawings. The scale on the graph paper drawings is the same as the plans.  I will just use the paper template to cut out the parts and install. I used paper templates to test the rotation of the hinge/canopy design.


10-08-2010 Rewrite (I am updating the install notes, so there will be some typos and even some old info that is still there. The old info is usually too wordy.)
The first drawings posted have been replaced with this one, because of some improvements made as I did the install of the hinges. Most importantly, I added a cross piece, aka hinge board, between the two canopy side hinges. I also lowered the aft side of the hinge to allow this hinge board to connect to the "base" of the canopy and place most of the support there. It worked out well. I really recommend it. The hinge board gave me the option to only place one gas spring (co-pilot side).
The height of F-28 on this drawing is shown at 1 inch above the top level of the longerons, but the midline area of F-28 rises up another 0.5 inches to give the total of 1.5 inches.
F-28 has a brace added. See later pics.
Point A is the rotation point and it is 3/4th inch forward of F-28 and about 1.25 inches below the top skin and point A is 1/4th inch sized for an AN4 bolt
The bracket for the F-28 side of the hinge is 2.75 inches tall and 1.5 inches wide.
The bracket for the canopy side is 3.5 by 1.5 and the AN4 hole is drilled first, but the AN3 holes are not drilled until the exact angle for the hinge to bracket to hinge board is set (see Pic#2).
"@" This is a 15 ply BID pad. Another one is in F-28. Not shown in the drawing is the use of Tee nuts to attach the bracket to the hard point pad.
"*" "hinge board" See layup list for that info. The bottom of this support is flush with the top of the longeron. I tapered the top surface as it approached the longerons. This support stopped short of the longerons also.
"%" This is the cut line, between the canard cover and the FHC. That gives full access to the hinges and aft of the IP area. The FHC side of the cut has a recessed area like the area forward of the rudders on the winglets, to allow the forward lip (aft edge of the canard cover) to rotate into that recess. Water problems are covered with the custom secondary cover that conforms to the bottom of the FHC (see later pic).
"?" Since the canard cover stops at the cut line, I need to have an attachment point further aft. Tee nuts are placed into the top of F-28 (but not over the hinges).
Note: The plexi canopy was moved forward about two inches for my FHC. Todd's canopy has extra length and if you make that change you get two benefits. First you get two more inches of depth at the top of the IP and that allows for 4.5" room and you can install analog instruments (four of the "six pack") as a backup for the Dynon system. Also, you will have a little more width forward of your head. 
Here is a very short description of the brackets. The F-28 brackets are 2.75 inches long and the canopy side hinges are 3.5 inches long, made from 1.5 X 1.5 angle 2024T3 aluminum (see list).
The hinge is 2024 aluminum 1/4th inch thick. The drawing will render a template, when redrawn and cutout.
Pic#2: I jumped ahead to a pic of the hinges installed on F-28 (I used the steel rod for that part to get the alignment). This shows the use of mustard on the waxed tops of the Tee nuts. I added bracing under the hinges and set the "hinge board" on top of this to see where to cut out for the hard point to be installed on the bottom side of the "hinge board". I cut out the recess, placed the board back in position and with thick flox and masking tape around the sides to set the position.
Pic #3: The heart of the FHC.
The base of the canopy view has a lot of info. The base of the canopy has most of the layups and  hardpoints.
"V" Piano hinges (two-each 6") placed at the outer edge of the fairing for the TB
"?" K-2 rotary latch hardpoints (these are to be placed 16" aft of the IP)

"%" secondary pull knobs and hardpoints (Not Needed) (see pic #3 of 18-FHC-4 below for main handle)
"#" Hardpoints for gas springs (compressed length=12", extended length=20") (One will probably do the job)
"~" 4 ply UND strip on the top side of base (the bottom side of the base has the UND placed to the outboard of the hinge)
"+" A one inch lip past the edge of the longerons
"@" "Hinge board" from longeron to longeron- placed flush with the top of the longeron. This is bonded to the rest of the base.
"*" Canopy hinge hardpoint installed on lower side of hinge board (see 18-1 pics)
"$" hinge
The blue section is the aft part of the canard cover.

Hinge Brackets
Pic #1: Cut four brackets at 2.75" and four at 3.5".
The F-28 brackets have the 1/4th inch hole for the AN4 bolt (and the temp. use of the steel rod)
The canopy brackets also have the 1/4th inch hole, but three more holes for AN3 bolts. The AN3 holes are drilled just before the install of the hinge assembly onto the "hinge board", as seen in 18-1, pic #2 above.
The base of the bracket is secured to the hardpoint with 1/4th inch diameter bolts to Tee nuts. The Tee nuts are not threaded for AN4 bolts (for that size), so I used Lowe's bolts. There are 32 bolts holding the brackets, so there is no compromise on strength. The Tee nuts are a major help in the FHC install.
Pic #2: The AN4 bolt is not placed yet. The mustard gets the mark on the matching bracket to help on alignment of the two.

Flox install of hinge pads:

You will need to install the reinforcement pad onto the two F-28 bracket assemblies and the two canopy bracket assemblies. Mark the holes for the brackets to the reinforcement pads and drill for the Tee nuts to slip into the opposite side of the pad. Tape the hinge bracket with masking tape, and punch the holes out for the bolts and install the bolts through the pad into the Tee nuts (base side away from the bracket. Put wax onto the ends of each Tee nut.

For the F-28 install, just trim out the inset on the aft side down to the forward side glass and add flox to the pad and seat it into the floxed recession WITH the guide rod in position. Clamp the assemblies in place and let cure. After cure uninstall the brackets from the pads and use a sharpie to outline the bolt holes in the reinforcement pad. Place wax into the holes and do the four ply UND over the aft of F-28. You must be able to see the sharpie outlines through the layup. After cure, dremel out the bolt holes and reinstall the F-28 side of the FCH assembly with the AN4 bolts instead of the guide rod. You already should have added the 4 ply UND layup and stiffener to the forward side of F-28.

The canopy side of the hinges has become a simple process with the use of the hinge board. I attached some temporary supports on the inboard sides of the longerons to hold the hinge board in place for the install of the hinge/pad assembly to the underside of this piece.

15 Ply BID Hard point material 

The size is 8" by 12". I did not use all of this glass hardpoint material in chapter 18. The rest was used for hardpoints for the fuel pump assemblies on my header tank (see chapter 21). If you are not using wet fuel pumps, then you will need less. 

1. Canopy side hinge pads 4"X4" (two)

2. F-28 side hinge pads 2.75"X4" (two)
3. one piece of hard point the size of the gas spring BR-bracket base to raise the bracket on the fuselage side of the TB gas spring
4. Two K-2 base sized pieces of hardpoint (this spacer raises the K-2 latch off the canopy base to allow room for the the latch handle to rotate)

16 Gauge Hard point material (with multiple 1/2" holes for flox retention and weight reduction)

1. Gas spring mount hard point ( 2"X2.5") on underside of the canopy about 12.25 inches aft of the center of the forward end of the gas spring)
2. Gas spring mount hard point (2.5"X2.5') on outboard edge of top of the seatback platform

3. K-2 rotary draw latch pads 2"X2.5" (two-one for left and one for right and mounted on the underside of the cabin side of the canopy) 12.25 inches aft of the longeron mounted bracket)
4. K-3 latch pads 1.5"X3" (two for the TB)

1/4" 2024 Alum. Hard point material
2.5"X2.0" piece (to mount the forward end of the FHC gas spring off the bottom of the top right longeron just aft of the IP) 

Piano hinge steel rods 4" long (four of these)
Two to be floxed and glassed on the longerons for the K-2 latches for the FHC and
Two to be floxed and glassed on the curved area of the top aft edge of the seatback for the K-3 latches to secure the TB

Supply List for FHC

ITEM                                          Supplier                     QUANTITY

2024 Alum-0.25 thick (12"X12")        AS                           1
2024T3 Angle alum (1.5" X 1.5"-12")  AS                           3
16 Gauge steel plate (6"X12")        Lowe's                        1
piano hinges rod (4")                       AS                            4

1/4"-20 bolts-3/4" long                  Lowe's                       36

1/4" lock and flat washers              Lowe's                       36-50

1/4"-20 X 5/16" Tee nuts               Home Depot                36

AN3-10A   bolt(canopy hinge side)   Aircraft Spruce             6

MS21042-3 nut                             Aircraft Spruce             6

AN970-3 washer                            AS                             12

AN4-10A  bolt                                  AS                             4

MS21042-4  nut                              AS                             4

AN970-3  washer(drilled to 1/4")      AS                            4

(The F-28 hinge points have room enough for just the plain flat washers from Lowe's)

SPD-GSEL-5300-20(pound force)Service Plus Dist.               2 (I for the FHC and one for the TB section)

These gas springs were not in stock for me so order ahead of time.

BR-12553 bracket(ball inward)            SPD                          2 (both for the TB)

BR-10684 bracket(ball outward)          SPD                          2 (both for the FHC)
K-2 draw latch                                  Southco                    2 (left and right of FHC)

K-3 draw latch (low profile)                Southco                    2 (for TB section)

Safety latch                                    Self made                  1

Piano hinge (-05)  (five inch length)     AS                           2

Clickbonds                                       Cozygirrrls                 12

latch type locks (see pic)                     Lowe's                      1

Note: I used some other materials, but this chapter had so many steps, that I may have some material shown in a section and not listed here. An example is the machine screws for the brackets mounted on the longerons for the gas spring and safety latch.
I'm trying to get ready and paint this "thing".


The one lock on the right side will secure the canopy on the ground. The locks shown in the pic are from AS, but I used a Lowe's locks and I liked the hardware size. I will use the K-2 and K-3 rotary draw latches to secure and seal both the FHC and the TB section, during flight. I will construct a saftey latch as an extra backup. I have in mind a spring loaded latch that will attach to the FHC crossbar and be positioned between the pilots and latch onto the seatback shoulder area. That way, you can have only one latch and reach it from either seat with ease. In the 18-11 pic section, there is a little "U" shaped lift key that inserts into the canopy base to start the lift process. The seal is so tight that there is no other way to do it by using your fingers. The lift key is made of 1/8th inch diameter steel, and so the hole is small. The reason for just one exterior lock, is that the TB side that has the hinges is hollow, and to make the entry side hollow would make too sharp points for a passenger to hit their head on.


Pic #1: The alighnment pin has already been replaced with an AN-3 bolt and the trial fit of a cross piece is shown.

Pic #2: I glassed all the pieces on a table and then trimmed them and trial fitted with nails, and used 5-min epoxy to tack things in place and then floxed and added 2 ply BID strips where possible. Before everything bonded, I reinstalled the canard to check for clearance.
CHANGE NOTE: When I changed out the Blue Mountain Av, pitch servo for the Dynon servo, I was able to remove the mount bracket glassed to the nose wheel box and this freed up room for the radio stack. The pitch trim bracket is shown here, without the controls.


Pic#1: This is a later pic to show the inside recess for more shoulder room.
Pic #2: I like reference marking. This is a reference tape of things on the TB and TB to FHC. At this point I have trimmed the plexi canopy at the bottom of the TB lip.

Pic #3: The blue foam is the extension of the upper fairing. I shaped the fairing to see how much that I could trim off the plexi canopy and give more shoulder room. Later pics will show the use of this space to place an external lock. I made marks on a scrap of clear plexi and when it looked good, I made the plastic template to match it on the other side. Of course the blue foam is to be cut at the TB/FHC lip junction.

Pic #4: While the plexi canopy is off for trimming, I installed the hinge pads into F-28 with flox. A 4 ply UND layup then goes on the aft of F-28 securing the hinge pads in place.


Pic #1: This is trimmed plexi canopy. The shoulder area at the aft is trimmed to still blend to the fairings. Further forward, there is one inch of space from the tops of the longerons to the bottom of the plexi canopy. There is a scrap of glassed 1/4th inch foam on top of the IP for a spacer and the area forward of that "blends" around to the other side. I left the extra length on the canopy as it comes from Todd's canopy place. You are supposed to trim off 2-3 inches on the aft side. I did not cut the plexi canopy and this gave me another 1/4th width in the aft area on each side, but the main reason to not cut off those 2-3 inches is to make the IP space at the top area have over 4 inches of depth to allow the analog backup instruments to go there. The plans profile template was less use, but it still works out. My canard cover is 1/4th above F-28 to allow for Tee nut and machine screw install. I roughened up the bottom 3/4th inch of the plexi canopy, and did the outside one ply UND layup now, but I did the inside in the next pic set (over on the tables).

Pic #2-3: You have to install the aft lip for the FHC at this point (4 ply BID, 3 inch wide with 2 inch over lap onto the plexi canopy. The plexi canopy will want to flex away at the bottom, so you have to wedge it close. I used masking tape on the TB and it was hard to remove, so place clingwrap on the TB and then cover that with masking tape and it works much better. With this lip in place, you can move the plexi canopy and FWD TB section over to some tables and do interior work with ease. Mark the end of this lip on the TB

Pic #4-5: This FHC install has a base for most of the rotational strength. This base uses 3/8th inch thick blue foam aft of F-28 to the "shoulder areas" and 1/4th inch tan foam over the IP and forward to the "hinge board". The side pieces on the base are 29 inches long as measured from the IP. I made cardboard templates (save them for layup shapes). The base stops 1/4 inch past the curvature point from the top of the longereons to the fuselage side and rises 5/8th of an inch to the bottom side of the plexi canopy. You have to trim the little upturn on the sides of the IP to a straight line contour. The bottom of the "hinge board" (see 18-8 pic#3) is flush with the tops of the longerons and so I had to add a small 3/8th piece of foam in that area to transition down to it. BEFORE I took the plexicanopy and TB section off, I glassed the bottom side of this base with 2 ply BID (layup FHC-7). This base must touch the top of the longeron outside edge and touch the bottom of the plexicanopy. I used blocks to do the necessary torquing. The hinge board is not attached to the base YET. 


Pic#1: I made a cardboard template and leveled the tables and put things back together on the tables. The reference lines on the TB to FHC lip is the guide. By the way, before you get started on the major work inside, it a good point flip the plexi canopy over and place the 1 ply UND on the bottom 3/4th inch inner side.

Pic#2: I used the cardboard template to guide me in shaping a 1.5 inch wide freshly glassed piece.


Pic#1: The long piece goes on the bottom of the canopy. See pic#4 for the 2 ply UND layup placed on the inside of the plexi canopy about one inch forward of the aft edge of the canopy (FHC-8). Also, in pic#4 you can see that the lower cross bar has to clear the TB lip upon lifting of the FHC.  After you finish this work, trial fit the canopy and sit inside to check the position of the crossbar for your head. I have no problem, because my secondary seatback supports me a little forward of the plans one. If it is in the way, then then there is room to make an aft set back. The only problem with that is adding the "L" piece and foam and finish is more complex. This piece is a necessity for the FHC.
Pic#2: I floxed in the top piece on the FHC-9 layup. The hole in the top piece is a pull down for the FHC.
Pic#5-6: The top piece and the bottom piece need a connection that stiffens like the cowling stiffeners. I cut some 1.5 inch pipe foam and floxed the edges and placed some 2 ply BID over it. I went ahead and microed this with the canopy flipped over, but I did not yet sand it. When I do my cowling, I will not use this foam, due to the high temps, but it sure worked nicely.
I added another glassed piece, one inch wide on the bottom backside of the cross bar to make an "L" shape and then added some blue foam to fill in the shape to make at good rounded contour. This extension tapers back to the cross bar at the ends to not hit the TB lip.
Note: This foam works great at adding a rounded edged to the top aft edge of the front seat back (see section 18-19, pic#6). 

Pic#1: The two F-28 moved together with a steel rod with no binding, before this part. I covered the install earlier, but this shows the second time to use the 1/4th inch diameter steel rod for alignment. The top ends of the Tee nuts must have the space free of flox and the yellow color is ortho was with mustard on top. I braced up the bottom of hinges at the height to have the bottom of the hinge board be flush with the top of the longerons. I pressed the hinge board onto the two pads and then trimmed out for the two pads and then added flox on the pads and just set the board in place and let cure.
Pic#2: The FHC side of the hinges were taken off after placing black sharpie reference marks on each piece and FHC-6 layup was done after placement of ortho wax in all Tee nut openings. I placed a block of wood on each pad and a weight to maintain a flush surface. As long as the hinges were nice and tight onto the pads before this is started, then they will tighten right back like that in the end.
Pic#3. This moves with no binding at any point in the rotation. If you don't have that result, then cut the pads out and reflox. AN-3 and 4 aircraft bolts are used for the hinges.

Pic#1: The plexi canopy could have the aft internal reinforcement at this point or you can do it after this, but it's time to do the 2 ply BID layup on top of the base and connect the hinge board to the base now. I made a midline mark earlier on the hinge board and matched that to the midline mark on the plexi canopy. I also checked the tick marks on the IP where the border of the plexicanopy crossed. I placed the layup and put some plastic where the canopy touched the base and set the plexi canopy down in place. The hinge board is held up by two temporary stops screwed onto the sides of the longerons.
Pic#2: I placed the board on the longerons to add some small pieces forward under the base to wedge it up to the plexi canopy before I did the layoup under the base and I placed that again before the top was glassed.
Pic#3: The FHC-10 layup is done and connects the hinge board to the base sides and the foundation of the canopy is in place. Next the 4 ply UND (FHC-11) layup is placed on the top sides.
Pic#4: The plexi canopy was set on a table and I could easily add a bottom 4 ply UND layup (FHC-12). Due to the hinges, I had to split the layup. The main portion(about 3 inches wide) runs in the area outboard to the hinges and hinge pads and the secondary portion is 1.5 inches wide and runs at a diagonal from inboard of the hinges to overlap the main layup. The secondary layup is more for torque resistance on those gusty days (on the ground). Both the FHC-11&12 layups will be extended to the apt canopy lip and internal ring.


Pic#1: The final pic in this set shows how that the canopy raises and the small cover at the top of the IP (I call it the IP cover) stays on the IP and the rest of the forward of the IP cover moves up with the canopy. In pic#2, you see the cresent shaped foam and that part moves with the canopy.
NOTE: Because I did not cut off the plexicanopy and I moved the LE of the plexicanopy forward, I was able to make enough room under this cover and get 4.25 inches of depth to install four analog instruments there. See chapter 22. The funny looking long foam piece is made up to span the space from the hinge board to F-28. I made this and set it aside for now ( It will be used in the final top of the nose shaping as seen in 18-12 in pic#1). The cut line between the FHC and the canard cover will be in that zone. 
NOTE AS OF 04-12-12: When I installed the ADI Tru-Trax attitude instrument, I barely had enough room for the sub-D connector on the forward side. So, if you add 0.5 inches to the foam piece in pic #2, then it will be an easy install.
Pic#2: The blue foam is so soft, that I painted on pure epoxy and let cure to maintain a smooth finish. This piece is very important for looks.
Pic#3: The IP "cover" is glassed to the base for the FHC and is not yet glassed to the IP (I taped and used cling wrap on the top edge of the IP).  The stop point for the seating of the canopy is already established with the underside of the base and so I could just mark a cut line and cut off the small IP cover and then flox it to the top of the IP. Later, I moved the manual LG rod to the top edge of the IP so that the forward of the IP space would have enough room for avionics. The funny looking taped foam piece is a mockup to test the cutline geometry, aka, make sure it works. The layup shown is the FHC-13 one. See pic#2 of 18-20.

Pic#4: This shows the bottom side glassed. The IP cover is ready to be cut off and then glassed to the top of the IP. The cut line for this is the "top" blue line. (FHC-14 layup)

Pic#5: DON'T WASTE THE BID ON THIS METHOD. Instead, just place foam over the hinges and place the 2 ply BID layup there to make two "hinge pails" to collect water as low points. See the section for the IP/F-28 cover construction. 

Pic#6: This shows the IP cover bonded to the IP and how it transitions to the FHC. The custom cover that I made covers up the forward of the IP area. The masking tape is over the manual socket for the front landing gear, which has been moved up.


Once the IP "cover" is bonded to the top of the IP, then it's finally time to flox and glass the plexi canopy to the base. I lined up the midline and made sure that the aft lip on the plexi canopy is is fully seated onto the TB (using the sharpie reference line) and did the deed (FHC-16 layup). After cure, I lifted up the canopy and sat inside to check the line of sight to the IP for the top left and right of the IP. Even though I cut the bottom of the plexi canopy one inch above the longerons and even though the plexi canopy sits on the base directly and there is only 1/2 inch of thickness to the base, there still is some hindrance to my left eye seeing the area where my engine monitor module will be (UL of IP). So I took off some on the non-structural part of the base and rounded back the bottom edge and helped visibility (You may see that rounding in the last pic above). Then I took the canopy off the fuselage, inverted it and did the floxing layup on the inner side (FHC-17).

IN 18-11&12 The stacking of the foam and shaping and glassing are shown, but along the way the 4 ply UND layups have to be extended over and above the shoulder areas of the canopy to the aft canopy lip areas. I did that work after all the shaping of foam was done, but let me offer a better plan. It is better to stack the foam in the shoulder areas to the end of the base ends of the canopy and shape that foam on the outside to transition to the top fairings and then trim out for the 5 ply UND layup (FHC-17) and the 5 ply BID (FHC-18) to connect to the aft lip.


Pic#2: This shows FHC-17 and 18 layups in place. When the FHC-21 and 22 get done on the interior side with some flox between, then the force of pulling down on the handle at the aft will be transferred forward to the hinges and still have the extra room for the shoulders.

Pic#1&3: It is necessary to have a lift point for the FHC. The white stuff is flox with a little micro. The temp in the shop was 93 degrees and a thicker flox mix would be too exothermic, so I added a little micro to lower the density. No micro for structural parts. I put a smalll piece of foam in the flox and made a template of where this is. After the top skin is placed, I drilled a small hole into the foam and inserted the "key" to lift the FHC. The lift force is 19 pounds to start the lift when there is no gas spring and that force will be much lower with the gas spring. Keep up with that template, because you will not find the spot after micro is placed.


Stacking foam: Before the foam is placed, the outside of the base was trimmed back to allow a nice curve and allow a one inch lip that tapers to and a glass to glass edge (ext-int) type lip.

Pic#1: The piece of foam pictured is 14 inches wide for that canard cover with some end pieces. I took the template for checking the incidence of the canard and cut these pieces. Most all of the end pieces gets trimmed off. I used the jiggle and trim technique to get the inner surface of the canard cover. Press on the outside and jiggle the foam piece to leave marks and then trim there.

Pic#2: In 18-9,pic#1 there is a blue foam piece that was set aside. I placed that just aft of F-28. I had to add some tan foam at the outboard area and so you don't see the blue foam. I placed the canard foam piece. The shoulder area of the FHC has the foam stacked on edge like the plans,  but everywhere else, I placed the foam flat onto the base and bonded the foam to the base with "Great Stuff" (as for micro keep it away from the edges).

Pic#3: Don't put the "Great stuff" at the edges like this. I had to peel it off to allow shaping to the canard top surface.



Pic#1: Don't knock the masking tape. You don't want any extra micro seeping down onto hinges or making a hard spot in the middle of the future cutline for the FHC. The forward edge of the canard is going to have a floxed edge and have to be tweaked to transition, so "just go for it" as is. You can see that there is a small gap next to the plixi canopy. I will add flox there and lay a BID strip next to the canopy.

Pic#2: The plastic template is shown for one side for the 2py BID FHC-19 layup. This layup was done in two halves that overlapped at the midline. I did this early in the morning to increase working time and I wet out both sides at once on two different tables and layed on the micro. Since the layup stops short of the plexicanopy, it is possible for one person to hold and lay this on (just barely). It really is a two person job.

Pic#3: Masking tape peel ply. If you use good 3M masking tape and pull at a 45 degree angle backwards, you can get it to peel off. you might have to "push" the edges with a blade to stop any tearing(move the blade like sweeping with a broom) and no cutting of the surface). I had placed clingwrap on the forward edge of the top fairing to prevent bonding.

Pic#1: The cut line was marked on masking tape on the side of the fuselage earlier. I remarked it and used a dremel disk to cut the outer sides. Since there is nothing under center section, I used a handled hack saw blade. Forget about angling the blade. The force to start the lift is 19 lbs, without the gas springs, but only 15 pounds to hold the FHC up. The FHC weighs 31.5 pounds (with hinges attached).
Pic#2&3: The FHC lip lifts up and forward. The forward end of the FHC has to have a recess to allow the aft lip of the canard cover to enter that space. The fourth pic shows that recess. I took the hinges off to put on some micro.

Pic#1: The canard cover has machine screws to secure it. On the inside of the canard cover, I trimmed out the foam half an inch wide to the top skin over the area that contacts F-28. I placed clingwrap over F-28 and then repositioned the cover and let cure. I did this again for the forward side, but that area is about one inch aft of the front edge of the cover. These two areas of flox give me a stable "stop" and allow the machine screws to not have washers, as you will for the engine cowling lip. I measured for where F-28 is and drilled a test hole and then did the seven holes into the top edge of F-28. I trimmed out the foam and little bit of glass where the Tee nuts will go on the top of F-28 (see pic#3). Alignment is very critical, so here goes the detail. It is necessary to trim out the flox on the inside of the canard cover where the Tee nuts are, but the flox between these areas will still provide a "stop". After that, I placed masking tape on the floxed area of the inner side of the canard cover and placed machine screws through the holes and lightly tightened the Tee nuts against the inner surface of the canard cover with ortho wax on the open end of the Tee nut. I put a "little" flox in the F-28 trim out zones and seated the canard cover in place and let the flox cure around the Tee nuts. I unscrewed the machine screws and took off the cover. I trimmed up the flox and added the small BID strips around the Tee nuts and around the forward and aft of F-28 to secure them. I had to trim a little more flox on the inside of the canard cover to get it to seat back down, but it ended well. When I tighten down the machine screws, I get a secure stop. Now I was able to work at the seal on the outboard edges and glass (FHC-23)the inside 
of the cover to get a glass to glass bond at the aft and forward edges.
Pic#2: The front edge has five Tee nuts. It is much simpler to place these. I trimmed out a 3/4th inch hole and trimmed some foam out under the top skin. I placed flox in this undercut and flox on the Tee (with ortho wax on open end) and used the machine screws to align them. Of course masking tape is placed on the inner surface of the canard cover. Due to the undercuts with flox, BID covering of the Tee nuts is not needed and adding BID here will effect the seal on the forward edge. 
Pic#3: The attachment of the machine screws into F-28 adds some more resistence to torquing opon lifting and closing of the FHC. Each one of the Tee nuts is secured to F-28 with 2ply BID strips and flox. 


This similar to placing the hinges on the rudders. Just place the hinges on the external side. I drill some holes and place some screws that are slightly smaller than the clickbonds.  I Tested the rotation of the TB and then moved the hinges to the interior after a small trim out for the hinge center, but I did not install them yet. The area under the hinges is reinforced on the inner side with a 3 ply BID strip on both sides with the bottom strip overlapping onto the strake top skin (FHC-24). After this layup, the holes were redrilled and the hinges were installed with the clickbonds. A 2 ply BID strip was placed over the clickbonds (not on the layup list).

Lock for the FHC
Note: Only one lock was installed (right side) because it made the passenger side access have a smooth surface on the TB base and one lock is enough to secure the FHC.
Pic#1&3: Same view.
Pic#3: I used a simple lock. I trimmed out for the lock before the hinges are placed, so the foam has not been removed on the inner side when you look at the second pic. Due to my raising of the TB, I had this room to work with for the lock. The lock comes with a short offset and longer straight piece. I had to custom bend the long one to exit at the right level. I extended the lock like this and sat inside the cockpit and pushed a small piece of urethane foam onto the bar. In the third pic, you can see that piece of foam with glass over it on the inner side of the FHC shoulder area.
Pic#4: I trimmed more glass away to allow easier access for a screwdriver. The lock comes with two rotation guides. You have to try them on the lock to see that you have the right movement of the bar and then transfer that to your final install.

Pic#1&2: Here is the open space for acess to the seats.
Pic#3: I used the plans screws for the piano hinge install on the longeron. The bracket from SPD is the BR-10684 (ball outward).
Gas spring and latch attachments and hard points

In my install of the gas spring and rotary latches (K-2 and K-3), I used metal hardpoints that are floxed and glassed onto previous layups and added either Tee nuts under the metal piece OR placed clickbonds and AN bolts under the metal piece (screw down or bolt down).
Pic#1: For the canopy side of the gas springs and for the hinge side of the rotary latches, there has to be a "screw down action". The use of 8-32 Tee nuts is one solution. You just don't want a slipping situation. I have covered the Tee nut choice in several other sections (wheel pants, ect.). 
Pic#2: I drilled a one half inch hole in the base layup, so that the prongs of the Tee nuts could extend up and add to the flox retention, without raising the metal hardpoint. I floxed up the metal and added a platform of 1/4th thick BID to allow the handle to flip down into the locked position and then placed a 4 ply layup of UND (2"X8") (FHC-25)

Safety latch- A spring  latch is not needed for a FHC (the wind force maintains seating and there is a 5 pound downward force with the weight of the FHC). This safety latch is installed just above the control stick and so it is easy to see and easy to remove the safety clip prior to any emergency landing. That allows the canopy to be opened from the outside, if that is needed. Besides this safety latch, there are two latches on the FHC and two on the TB section.
Pic#1&2: I will show an installed pic, but you don't get to see the parts under the layup in that pic. 
          From left to right:  The 8-32 Tee nuts with prongs flattened some. Holes are drilled on the underside of the canopy, just inboard of the area where the longerons touch the canopy and the Tee nuts recess into those holes and the two inch long 16 gauge steel plate goes over the Tee nuts and that is glassed onto the under side of the canopy. I use the 8-32 steel screws to attach the 90 degree 2024 alum. piece to it (washers not shown). That piece slides into the slot in a 2.25 inch long 1/8 inch thick 2024 alum piece that is bolted onto the longeron (similar to the forward side of the gas spring and like the plans method of placing the piano hinges). 
Pic#3: To install the safety latch, I cut a 1/4 inch thick piece of hardpoint scrap and drilled some holes for the Tee nuts to fit into. I had to use that to drop the bracket down a little. I got some 5 min. epoxy and a mixing stick(aka tongue blade) and sat inside the plane. I used a couple of short pieces to the mixing stick to space the 90 degree part of the safety latch in the slot and applied some 5 min. epoxy to bond the base to the bottom of the canopy and sat in the plane for yes, 5 minutes. I unscrewed the backet and glassed the base onto the bottom side of the canopy.
Pic#4: The K-2 rotary latches work great. This angle works well to give a down and lateral securing action. I cut a 4 inch long piece of piano hinge steel rod and cut two small squares of predrilled hard point material. I placed the steel rod in the slot on the K2 latch and with the canopy down, I used 5 min epoxy to glue the hard point squares to the longeron. Then I added some flox and let cure and then sanded that and did the 4 ply BID layup.
Pic#5: The FHC shows the latches.
Pic#6: The layup (4 ply BID) looks rough, but a little micro and Zolatone will work wonders. Notice the addition of a rounded surface to the seatback. I used some foam used to insulated water pipes to get this shape.
Pic#7: The K-3 is attached to the TB roll bar support.
Safety prop: In pic#3 there is a safety latch and in pic#5, you can see the FHC when it is opened. There is a safety catch on the gas spring, but when you press on the latch, the FHC slowly starts moving down. At the end of the closure cycle, a braking action with a hand is needed. I wanted a positive pressure to hold the canopy closed.

Safety/ventilation prop: 
The gas spring has a lock, that is disabled by pressing on the side of the gas spring. The spring balances the force of the FHC at the full extension point, but does very little to stop closing during the last half of closing. So, the canopy is going to "gain momemtum" and close with some force, unless you guide it down with you hand. I dropped the canopy down this way and it did not cause any damage to the canopy, but a hand on the longeron would have been broken! I immediately set out to add a fixed safety prop on the pilot side, using the existing safety latch connectors. What I got was a prop that secured the canopy open (pic#4) and using the same prop, I can hold the canopy 1/4th open for taxi time from the ramp to the runup area (pic#2). The safety latch attachments get three uses. For my install of the gas spring, this prop worked out to be 15.25 inches from the top insertion point at the top side to the bracket on the side of the longeron as seen in pic#2.
Pic#1: Final look after Zolatone. The half moon shape on the IP is for the brake lock.
Pic#2: Propped open for taxi to the runup area. The key is shown in the canopy lock.
Part#1: The curves piece is 1/4th inch diameter aluminum
Part#2: Then a 4 inch piece of 5/16th inch ID tubing
Part#3: Then some 5/16th inch diameter fiberglass rod material (at Lowe's next to the mail boxes)
Part#4: This is some hard point scraps that have a "tooth" to fit into the slot on the longeron mount of the safety latch and a 5/16th inch hole has been drilled to allow for sliding up and down on the fiberglass rod.
Part#5: Two parts are slipped onto the rod and flox was added between the two on the side away from the safety latch. The lip of the top one sits on the safety mount and the piece with the tooth then slips down into place, locking the whole thing in place. The bottom piece is a foot for the ventilation position and keeps the "tooth" from resting on the armrest. After the Zolatone was applied, I found that I needed to make a notch in the "tooth" to catch better.
It is very important to make the length of this so that you keep the gas spring extended above the lock point for placing and removing of this prop.
IP/F-28 Cover

Summary:  To protect my Garmin 430 and the Dynon avionics, I made a cover and a drip rail system. Due to the complex shape of the underside of the canopy, I broke the work into three steps and checked for interference with the closing of the FHC at each step.
Step#1: See pic#1. I took the "hinge pails" that I made (section 18-9) and trimmed off the sides a little. I taped them onto F-28, under the hinges. Later, I added the 1.25 inch wide BID scrap tipped up from the bottom aft side of F-28 (secured with some BID strips around to the front edge of F-28). I drilled holes to let the water from the F-28 drip rail to run into the hinge pails and from there exit with the tubing to the front LG strut area.
Step#2: I cut out a cardboard template (3 tries to get it perfect). The top side of this cardboard template needs to sit 1/4th inch below the top of the longerons and it must be removable over the top of the IP. It sits on top of the hinge pails for support. I rechecked for interference to the FHC, and then glassed the hinge pails onto F-28. The cardboard template is converted to a foam piece (1/4th inch thick).
Step#3: I made transition piece to go down from the outboard top edge of the IP to the rest of the cover. I used 1inch thick urethane foam. I did the old wiggle and trim technique to fit the lower side and lightly touched the FHC to the top side to check for clearance. 
Pic#3 shows the BID layup from the transition piece to the rest of the cover. I buttered on some micro and then taped the foam pieces together and laid the BID layup in position, and covered this with some plastic and lowered the canopy for the cure. This BID layup is only to hold the shape. After the cure, I added a 2 ply layup (I used UND) to the top and bottom of the cover. Before I did the bottom layup, I placed micro where the three (L&R) securing screws will attach the cover to the IP.  
Note: Since I moved the LG manual shaft up, I had to trim out a notch on the under side of the canopy to match. I put mustard on the shaft and marked the interference and trimmed a little at a time. This notch is visible in pic#2.
Canopy start with the turtleback

I finished chapter 16 and 17 before this chapter. In chapter 16, I installed the fuel lines inside the fuselage. I also installed the seats and armrest, before the canopy is added. Now, this chapter has some more differences from the plans, so you are warned and you can judge for yourself. You have heard that one thing leads to another. I committed to a rotary engine. I got a new Renesis rotary (aka, Mazda RX-8 engine) that was converted to aviation use by Bruce Turrentine. Once I got the engine, as shown in the second picture, I saw that the stock air intake was ideal for a scoop to increase the air pressure to the engine. The first picture below shows the scoop for downdraft cooling. To make the turtleback fit to the cowling and have that fit over the stock intake, I had to raise the turtleback by one inch. If you modify the stock air intake manifold, then you are going to cause a decrease in the air flow volume or speed. It is a turbulence situation.

Now, I will explain why the canopy install varies from the plans. The idea of cutting the canopy later is not needed. If you attach spacers (a couple of tongue blades duct taped down on the longerons in two places each side on the forward of the cut section) and then drill through the turtleback lip into the longerons and place finishing nails to reposition, then you take off the turtleback and make the internal supports including the roll over support. Then you reposition the turtleback with the "pins" and make the cut. Once you make the cut, then you can easily do the layups on the forward side of the firewall to support the engine. You can retest the engine mount position and place the FW forward aluminum hardpoints for the engine mount and even drill the 1/8 tap holes for the engine mount. The pictures show this change, so if you go the plans way, then my work will not be of much help. 

August of 2010

The paragraph above makes the case for a TB install and waiting for the plexi-canopy and canopy base install. I have finished the FHC and it really helped out on the work for me, to have the ability to remove the forward portion of the TB and reposition it as needed.


The recent postings on deep stall have brought up a lot of good information. I am sure that the second scoop will have some effect on flight. It should be a small effect, but that is to be determined and measured in the testing phase ( One measurement is what does the plane do in the nuetral position for the elevators). I will place a mounting in the nose, just aft of the brake fluid reservoir, for one of the batteries to be mounted for one or two person flight, so that I keep the CG to the forward side of the "envelope". The rear CG is one of the factors in the deep stall. The incidence of the canard is probably the major factor for deep stall. I checked the incidence of the canard as being to plans specs.


Downdraft ram air scoop
Pic #1: This is of the scoop later on. When you look at the last pic, you can see the foward side of the engine and the stock air intake manifold. The height of the stock manifold is difficult to work with, but the power saving is worth the work.
Pic #2: I placed the engine mount in position and simulated the position of the air intake manifold. The space between the firewall and the mouth of the manifold is sufficient for a duct to an air box and filter. The air will flow down and then back up and any water will be bled off a the bottom of the loop. Excess air from the lower scoop will be diverted to the filter box at higher altitude (ex. 8-10 thousand). The 1.25 inch cutoff of the turtleback. I did not cut off the turtleback at the scoop area, so that the scoop will extend past the FW. The windows are roughly outlined here and the future cut line is marked. I did not repeat the window placement pictures that other sites show.

In the first picture, the cutout turtleback piece was turned over to make the bottom of the scoop. The second picture shows how that when you raise the turtleback, then the FW has to be added to, on the top. Before I cut the FW for the scoop, I made a cardboard template of the firewall and placed the scoop floor onto it and precut on the cardboard. When I was satisfied with the results, then I did the scoop cutout on the FW. At this point, I have already drilled the "tap points" and placed finishing nails through the lip of the TB. Look at later pictures to see how the lip was added to for the one inch height increase. The height increase is on the full length of the turtleback.

I added some bulkhead scrap material where the hinge will secure. Later, I changed to a FHC and made the TB portion to hinge off piano hinges that are at the outboard edge of the fairing, so this reinforcement is too far inboard. The rotation point for the piano hinges needs to be closer to the edge of the outer surface to prevent pinching. The round objects in the corners are the bottom side of the drink holders. This whole support column is going to undergo a transformation. I will add to it like DeFord's setup. That is connected headrest and hidden gas springs, and ditch the auto headrest. The next picture shows the interior of the TB(turtleback). The closer part is the aft of the TB and that is where the scoop recesses. I placed a 7 ply UND that is 4 inches wide from left to right. At a point directly above the forward edge of the CS, I placed some ribbing for two purposes. It is there that I will attach the secondary firewall. It is more about hiding the batteries and adding sound protection. I will use this as an attachment point for a control for use of the air taken in by the scoop. I will cover that in chapter 23 later. The next thing is the short ribbing that is one inch forward of the future cut line. Last of all, there is the roll support at the forward end of the TB, where the gas spring is to attach (see 18-15 of plans). All of this glassing was done with ease on the work table. I also did the micro work around the windows at this point. After this was done, I repositioned the TB and prepared for the internal drip rail and then the cutting of the TB. 

Internal drip rail

The featherlite turtleback finish is so smooth. I plan to slightly sand for bond and prime directly to the surface. So, the idea of an external drip rail was not very appealing. I made an internal drip rail. If you make the internal bracing on the turtleback to maintain contour with temp changes then this internal drip rail will seal, dependably. In the third picture, I covered the cut line with masking tape. Next, I laid out a 4 ply BID strip. The next picture shows the BID strip before trimming. After the BID strip was made, then I drilled four test holes (1/8th inch size) along the cut line and then cut the turtleback.



The first picture shows the back end of the forward piece of the turtleback. I trimmed out some of the honeycomb cardboard material with a dremel bur and cut off about 1/2 inch of the inner surface. I matched that distance with the lip to be added on the forward side of the aft section (see next picture). I cut a strip of the yellow foam (1/4th inch thick and the flexible kind) and placed it under the BID strip to wedge it up close to the outer glass surface. I floxed it in and taped the BID strip over and placed the forward section over this to match up the surfaces. Let cure. Glass the bottom side of the foam. Take out some foam and ficro the edge and round the edges to  prevent head injuries. The last picture shows this. The back side of the forward section has some micro placed forward of the outer lip to allow support of the inner edge. Go back to the first picture and makes sense. When I add the upper strake fairings, I will add an exit at the bottom of the drip rail for water. This drip rail will not work for nose down parking and I will need a cover for that situation.

I added these pics to show some of the layups that are not shown on the other FW aft picture. 

Upper FW layups

T-1 to T-10

T-1 is the first 5 ply BID layup on the lower side of the CS to FW (fig 27)

T-2 is the 5 ply BID on the aft of the FW spanning the CS to FW (fig 27)

T-3 is a 5 ply BID that laps over the top edge of the firewall onto the back edge of the TB

T-4 is a 5 ply BID that spans the side of the TB down on to the fuselage side (aft of the cut point of the TB as per fig 27)

T-5 is a 5 ply BID reinforcement on the outside corner of the FW as per fig 30 of pg. 18.5.

T-6 is a 5 ply BID that spans the lower inside of the TB onto the longerons and slightly below (fig 27)

T-7 is a 5 ply BID at the inside of FW to CS corner as per fig 27.

T-8 is a 5 ply BID at the upper forward corner of the FW onto the TB as per fig 27.

T-9 is an 8 ply BID over the forward FW hardpoints as per fig 31 of 18.5 (place the aluminum engine reinf. as per fig. 32)

T-10 will be done after I position the upper pulleys for the rudder cables.

The two pics are of the panel that is above the CS. I used a block of 2 inch thick blue foam and carved in head rest on one side and recesses for the two batteries on the aft side.

Forward Hinge Canopy

Things to change from the plans way once you choose the FHC (see the list at the start of this chapter)

Finally, the Install of the FHC

Layup list: (labels of FHC-#)

FHC-1: (top of "hinge board") 3 ply BID and UND over full surface

FHC-2: (fwd side of F-28) 4 ply UND extending 1-2 inches onto the exterior of the fuselage

FHC-3: (F-28 stiffener) 2 ply BID over the glassed parts and 2 ply BID strips as needed to attach to F-28

FHC-4: (aft side of F-28) 4 ply UND, AFTER insertion of the hinge 15 ply hinge hardpoints for the hinges

FHC-5: 4 ply BID X 3 inch wide on the aft two inches of the plexicanopy over the TB lip.

FHC-6: (bottom side of "hinge board") 3 ply BID and 3 of UND, after the insertion of the hardpoints for the canopy side of the hinge

FHC-7: (bottom side of canopy base-aft of hinge board) 2 ply BID

FHC-8: 2 ply BID on all foam parts at aft of inside of canopy

FHC-9: 2 ply UND (two inches wide) on inside of plexi canopy and one inch forward of the aft edge

FHC-10: 2 ply BID on top side of the base
FHC-11: 4 ply UND (three inch wide) from forward edge of the hinge board to the aft end of the base sides
FHC-12: 4 ply UND- primary portion=3 inch wide, from aft of hinge board to end of side piece
secondary portion=1.5 inch wide from aft of hinge board diagonally to outboard edge of the primary portion

FHC-13: 2 py BID on the IP cover top

FHC-14: 2ply BID on the bottom side of the IP cover

FHC-15: 2 ply BID for custom cover forward of the IP to F-28.

FHC-15: 2 ply BID strip(2 inch wide) from exterior of base onto the 3/4th inch bottom of plexi canopy (floxed)

FHC-16: 2 ply BID strip(2 inch wide) for interior of base to plexi canopy

FHC-17: 5 ply UND (2.5 inch wide) on top of base and over lapping FHC-11 by two inches and extending to lip area at the aft

FHC-18: 5 ply BID (2.5 inch wide) over lapping FHC-17 and overlapping bottom of exterior lip (FHC-5)

FHC-19: 2 ply BID top of canopy staying short of plexi canopy by 1/2-3/4th inch

FHC-20: 2 ply BID (strips) placed (with flox in the foam gap) to stop at the side of the plexi canopy

FHC-21: 5 ply UND (2.5 inch wide) on bottom of base and floxed to bottom side of FHC-17( in the shoulder recess) and extending to the lip area

FHC-22: 5 ply BID (2.5 inch wide) over lapping FHC-21 and overlapping FHC-9
FHC-23: 2 ply BID inside of canard cover
FHC-24: 3 ply BID interior area where piano hinges attach to the fairing area above strake.
FHC-25: 4 ply UND over the mounting plate for the K-2 rotary latches (left and right)
FHC-26: 4 ply BID over the mounting plate for the safety latch and the four steel rods (piano hinge) for the K2 and K3 latches
There are layups on the roll bar at the forward side of the TB and they are not listed.